Document Type


Publication Date


Subject: LCSH

Explosives, Organic compounds


Civil and Environmental Engineering | Civil Engineering


It has been shown previously that, under acidic conditions, 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) degrade in the presence of iron/copper bimetal particles; the reactions can be modeled by pseudo-first-order kinetics. This study investigates the reaction mechanisms of the degradation processes under different conditions. Batch studies were conducted using laboratory-prepared solutions and an industrial insensitive munition-laden (IMX) wastewater. The influence of parameters such as initial pH of the solution, copper/iron (Fe-Cu) contact, and solid/liquid ratio were systematically investigated to assess their impact on the reaction kinetics. These parameters were subsequently incorporated into pseudo-first-order decomposition models for NTO and DNAN. The activation energies for the degradation reactions were 27.40 and 30.57 kJ mol−1, respectively. Degradation intermediates and products were identified. A nitro-to-amino pathway, which ultimately may lead to partial mineralization, is postulated. The amino intermediate, aminonitroanisole, was detected during DNAN degradation, but for NTO, aminotiazolone is suggested. Additionally, urea was identified as a degradation product of NTO.


This is the authors' accepted version of the article published in Environmental Science and Pollution Research. The final publication is available at Springer via



Publisher Citation

Kitcher, E., et al. "Characteristics and products of the reductive degradation of 3-nitro-1, 2, 4-triazol-5-one (NTO) and 2, 4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) in a Fe-Cu bimetal system." Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24(3):2744–2753 January 2017. doi: 10.1007/s11356-016-8053-7



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.