Document Type


Publication Date


Subject: LCSH

Soil remediation, Soils--Lead content, Soils--Zinc content, Starfishes


Civil Engineering | Ecology and Evolutionary Biology


Lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) contaminated rice paddy soil was stabilized using natural (NSF) and calcined starfish (CSF). Contaminated soil was treated with NSF in the range of 0-10 wt.% and CSF in the range of 0-5 wt.% and cured for 28 days. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test was used to evaluate effectiveness of starfish treatment. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses were conducted to investigate the mechanism responsible for effective immobilization of Pb and Zn. Experimental results suggest that NSF and CSF treatments effectively immobilize Pb and Zn in treated rice paddy soil. TCLP levels for Pb and Zn were reduced with increasing NSF and CSF dosage. Comparison of the two treatment methods reveals that CSF treatment is more effective than NSF treatment. Leachability of the two metals is reduced approximately 58% for Pb and 51% for Zn, upon 10 wt.% NSF treatment. More pronounced leachability reductions, 93% for Pb and 76% for Zn, are achieved upon treatment with 5 wt.% CSF. Sequential extraction results reveal that NSF and CSF treatments of contaminated soil generated decrease in exchangeable/weak acid Pb and Zn soluble fractions, and increase of residual Pb and Zn fractions. Results for the SEM-EDX sample treated with 5 wt.% CSF indicate that effective Pb and Zn immobilization is most probably associated with calcium silicate hydrates (CSHs) and calcium aluminum hydrates (CAHs).


This is the authors' accepted version of the article published in Chemosphere. The final publication is available at Springer via http://doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.01.090.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Publisher Citation

Moon, D. H., Hwang, I., Koutsospyros, A., Cheong, K. H., Ok, Y. S., Ji, W. H., & Park, J. (2018). Stabilization of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in contaminated rice paddy soil using starfish: A preliminary study. Chemosphere. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.01.090



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