Document Type


Publication Date


Subject: LCSH

Soil remediation, Soils--Lead content, Soybean--biotechnology, Biochar


Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering | Civil Engineering | Environmental Engineering


Soybean stover-derived biochar was used to immobilize lead (Pb) in military firing range soil at a mass application rate of 0 to 20 wt.% and a curing period of 7 days. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. The mechanism responsible for Pb immobilization in military firing range soil was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy analyses. The treatment results showed that TCLP Pb leachability decreased with increasing biochar content. A reduction of over 90 % in Pb leachability was achieved upon treatment with 20 wt.% soybean stover-derived biochar. SEM-EDX, elemental dot mapping and XAFS results in conjunction with TCLP leachability revealed that effective Pb immobilization was probably associated with the pozzolanic reaction products, chloropyromorphite and Pb-phosphate. The results of this study demonstrated that soybean stover-derived biochar was effective in immobilizing Pb in contaminated firing range soil.


This is the authors' accepted version of the article published in Environmental Science and Pollution Research. The final publication is available at Springer via



Publisher Citation

Moon, D.H., Park, JW., Chang, YY. et al. Immobilization of lead in contaminated firing range soil using biochar. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2013) 20(12): 8464-8671. December 2013.



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