The manufacturing of insensitive munition 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) generates waste streams that require treatment. DNAN has been treated previously with zero-valent iron (ZVI) and Fe-based bimetals. Use of Mg-based bimetals offers certain advantages including potential higher reactivity and relative insensitivity to pH conditions. This work reports preliminary findings of DNAN degradation by three Mg-based bimetals: Mg/Cu, Mg/Ni, and Mg/Zn. Treatment of DNAN by all three bimetals is highly effective in aqueous solutions (> 89% removal) and wastewater (> 91% removal) in comparison with treatment solely with zero-valent magnesium (ZVMg; 35% removal). Investigation of reaction byproducts supports a partial degradation pathway involving reduction of the ortho or para nitro to amino group, leading to 2-amino-4-nitroanisole (2-ANAN) and 4-amino-2-nitroanisole (4-ANAN). Further reduction of the second nitro group leads to 2,4-diaminoanisole (DAAN). These byproducts are detected in small quantities in the aqueous phase. Carbon mass balance analysis suggests near-complete closure (91%) with 12.4 and 78.4% of the total organic carbon (TOC) distributed in the aqueous and mineral bimetal phases, respectively. Post-treatment surface mineral phase analysis indicates Mg(OH)2 as the main oxidized species; oxide formation does not appear to impair treatment.
Hadnagy, Emese; Mai, Andrew; Smolinski, Benjamin; Braida, Washington; and Koutsospyros, Agamemnon, "Characterization of Mg-based Bimetal Treatment of Insensitive Munition 2,4-dinitroanisole" (2018). Civil Engineering Faculty Publications. 41.
Hadnagy, E., Mai, A., Smolinski, B., Braida, W., & Koutsospyros, A. (2018). Characterization of Mg-based bimetal treatment of insensitive munition 2,4-dinitroanisole. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-14.