Document Type


Publication Date


Subject: LCSH

Laminated metals


Civil Engineering


The manufacturing of insensitive munition 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) generates waste streams that require treatment. DNAN has been treated previously with zero-valent iron (ZVI) and Fe-based bimetals. Use of Mg-based bimetals offers certain advantages including potential higher reactivity and relative insensitivity to pH conditions. This work reports preliminary findings of DNAN degradation by three Mg-based bimetals: Mg/Cu, Mg/Ni, and Mg/Zn. Treatment of DNAN by all three bimetals is highly effective in aqueous solutions (> 89% removal) and wastewater (> 91% removal) in comparison with treatment solely with zero-valent magnesium (ZVMg; 35% removal). Investigation of reaction byproducts supports a partial degradation pathway involving reduction of the ortho or para nitro to amino group, leading to 2-amino-4-nitroanisole (2-ANAN) and 4-amino-2-nitroanisole (4-ANAN). Further reduction of the second nitro group leads to 2,4-diaminoanisole (DAAN). These byproducts are detected in small quantities in the aqueous phase. Carbon mass balance analysis suggests near-complete closure (91%) with 12.4 and 78.4% of the total organic carbon (TOC) distributed in the aqueous and mineral bimetal phases, respectively. Post-treatment surface mineral phase analysis indicates Mg(OH)2 as the main oxidized species; oxide formation does not appear to impair treatment.


This is the authors' accepted manuscript of the article published in Environmental Science and Pollution Research. The article of record can be found at



Publisher Citation

Hadnagy, E., Mai, A., Smolinski, B., Braida, W., & Koutsospyros, A. (2018). Characterization of Mg-based bimetal treatment of insensitive munition 2,4-dinitroanisole. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-14.

Sup Material Characterization of Mg-based Bimetal Treatment A.pdf (1311 kB)
Supplemental material to Characterization of of Mg-Based



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