Document Type


Publication Date


Subject: LCSH

Organized crime, Motorcycle gangs


Criminology and Criminal Justice


Transnational crime organizations (TCOs) represent a challenge to societies all over the world. This article explores combating criminal biker gangs, where stakeholders in the community and governments vary in their responses. These stakeholders include the government, law enforcers, courts, and the communities. The variation in responses is conceptualized in terms of a four stage of growth model. This model includes criminal biker gang members being treated as movie stars, individual criminals, organized criminals, and finally, enemies of the state. A stage model is a theoretical approach to understanding different levels of maturity in combating criminal biker gangs. Due to the great presence and threat from biker gangs, Norway and Australia are used as examples to illustrate the model. Further research should involve developing existing and new criteria for determination of maturity level in combating biker gangs, as well as applying such criteria to other countries with large biker gang populations.


Originally posted at . This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons-Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0) License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This license does not permit commercial exploitation or the creation of derivative works without specific permission.Originally posted at

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 License.

Publisher Citation

Gottschalk, P. & Markovic, V. Transnational Criminal Organizations (TCOs): The Case of Combating Criminal Biker Gangs. International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences (IJCJS). Vol. 11(1): 30-44.



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