Document Type


Publication Date


Subject: LCSH

Negritude (Literary movement)


Modern Languages


Xavier Icaza's Panchito Chapopote contains a rare portrayal of Mexican negritude. This novel rescues an identity marginalized by the emphasis on blending European and indigenous cultures in Mexico's official discourse. This representation is also distinguished by its distancing from both Afro-Mexican exoticism and Mexican nationalism. The article sheds light on this defamiliarized portrayal of Mexican Blackness by comparing it with Mário de Andrade's Macunaíma and Brazilian modernist works in general.


English translation of title:

The Avant–garde, Race and Nation: a Reading of Negritude in the Mexican novel Panchito Chapopote and of Estridentismo in light of the Brazilian Modernismo in Macunaima.

Transmodernity:Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the Luso-Hispanic World is an open-access journal published on e-scholarship. The journal can be found here. This article is reposted in Digital Commons @ New Haven with express permission of the publisher.

Publisher Citation

Irizarry, Roberto. (2012). Vanguardia, raza y nación: una lectura de la negritud de la novela mexicana Panchito Chapopote y del estridentismo a la luz del modernismo brasileño y de Macunaíma. TRANSMODERNITY: Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the Luso-Hispanic World, 2(1). ssha_transmodernity_14678. Retrieved from: