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Subject: LCSH

Neighborhoods, Oppositional defiant disorder in adolescence, Substance abuse in pregnancy, Caffeine




This study investigates the link between prenatal exposure to alcohol and drugs, parental perceptions of neighborhood safety and support, and the diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) among a nationally representative sample of youth. A subset of variables from a larger study, the 2001–2004 National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), as well as its supplemental parental surveys, was analyzed in this study. This study used a specific selection of 5,924 adolescents and their parents from the NCS-A. Results suggest a correlation between prenatal caffeine use and a subsequent ODD diagnosis in female adolescents. Overall correlations between neighborhood drug use/sales and minority status and a subsequent diagnosis of ODD in adolescents were also found. Social, environmental, and professional implications of these findings are also discussed.


This is the author's peer-reviewed version of the article published in Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal. The final publication is available at Springer via



Publisher Citation

Andrea A. Russell, Claire L. Johnson, Arwa Hammad, Kelly I. Ristau , Sandra Zawadzki, Luz Del Alba Villar, Kendell L. Coker. Prenatal and Neighborhood Correlates of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal 32(4), February 2015.

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