Document Type


Publication Date


Subject: LCSH

Consumers--Attitudes, Sports spectators


Sports Management


The purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument “Attitude toward Women’s Sports (ATWS) Scale” to measure attitude toward women’s sports, and seek various validity and reliability evidences for the instrument. First, item pool of ATWS scale was reviewed by subject matter experts to collect evidence on content validity of the instrument and to refine the instrument. Second, items were tested with two pilot studies to assess effectiveness of the items within the ATWS scale by performing item analyses. Total of 49 items were deleted in two pilot studies as a result of item analyses. The remaining items were used to create the ATWS scale, and tested with women’s sport fans (n = 230). Exploratory Factor Analysis was performed to examine internal structure of the ATWS scale, and eight factors accounted for 68 percent of the variance in the items. Furthermore, relationship between attitude toward women’s sports and consumption intentions was investigated by a multiple linear regression analysis as evidence based on relationship to other variables. The regression analysis reported excitement, affect and drama as statistically significant predictors of consumption intentions.


Accepted author manuscript version reprinted, by permission, from International Journal of Sport Management, 2017, 18 (2): 183-209. © Human Kinetics, Inc.

Publisher Citation

Mumcu, C., Marley, S. C. (2017). Development of the Attitude towards Women’s Sport Scale (ATWS). International Journal of Sport Management 18(2):183-209.



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