Bench-scale soil washing experiments were conducted to remove fluoride from contaminated soils. Five washing solutions including hydrochloric acid (HCl), nitric acid (HNO3), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and tartaric acid (C4H6O6) were tested. The concentration of the washing solutions used ranged from 0.1 M to 3 M with a liquid to solid ratio of 10. The soil washing results showed that the most effective washing solution for the removal of fluoride from contaminated soils was HCl. The highest fluoride removal results of approximately 97% from the contaminated soil were obtained using 3M HCl. The fluoride removal efficiency of the washing solution increases in the following order: C4H6O6
Moon, Deok-Hyun; Jo, Rae-hyun; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; and Park, Jeong-Hun, "Soil Washing of Fluorine Contaminated Soil Using Various Washing Solutions" (2015). Civil Engineering Faculty Publications. 11.
Moon, D. H., Jo, R., Koutsospyros, A., Cheong, K. H., & Park, J. H. (2015). Soil Washing of Fluorine Contaminated Soil Using Various Washing Solutions. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology, 94(3), 334-339.